I am currently mainly involved in two research projects: TOLEDO and PERSONA.

Also I am the chairman of the board for the journal Response.

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Sources for publications

 

The Appendices for the article "The Democratic Decline in India – When Did It Happen? On Whose Watch?", published in the The Wire, are included below. All data used can be downloaded from V-Dem

V-Dem Dataset:

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jan Teorell, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, M. Steven Fish, Agnes Cornell, Sirianne Dahlum, Haakon Gjerløw, Adam Glynn, Allen Hicken, Joshua Krusell, Anna L¨uhrmann, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Valeriya Mechkova, Juraj Medzihorsky, Moa Olin, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Josefine Pernes, Johannes von R¨omer, Brigitte Seim, Rachel Sigman, Jeffrey Staton, Natalia Stepanova, Aksel Sundstr¨om, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Tore Wig, Steven Wilson, and Daniel Ziblatt. 2018. ”V-Dem [Country-Year/Country-Date] Dataset v8” Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project.

and:

Pemstein, Daniel, Kyle L. Marquardt, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Joshua Krusell and Farhad Miri. 2018. “The V-Dem Measurement Model: Latent Variable Analysis for Cross-National and Cross-Temporal Expert-Coded Data”. University

 Project.https://doi.org/10.23696/vdemcy18

 

Appendix A

Liberal democracy index, India – 1947-2017

1947

0.1107

1961

0.5477

1975

0.2991

1989

0.5333

2003

0.5631

2017

0.4287

1948

0.1585

1962

0.5202

1976

0.2869

1990

0.5413

2004

0.5788

2018

0.395733

1949

0.1584

1963

0.5163

1977

0.353

1991

0.5428

2005

0.5722

2019

0.362766

1950

0.2431

1964

0.5194

1978

0.5203

1992

0.5522

2006

0.5783

2020

0.329799

1951

0.2802

1965

0.5066

1979

0.527

1993

0.5702

2007

0.5783

2021

0.296832

1952

0.465

1966

0.5025

1980

0.5002

1994

0.55

2008

0.5783

2022

0.263865

1953

0.5145

1967

0.5099

1981

0.4954

1995

0.5588

2009

0.5455

2023

0.230898

1954

0.5132

1968

0.5125

1982

0.5042

1996

0.5749

2010

0.5353

2024

0.197931

1955

0.5102

1969

0.5125

1983

0.4939

1997

0.5984

2011

0.5375

2025

0.164964

1956

0.5158

1970

0.5185

1984

0.4952

1998

0.5929

2012

0.525

2026

0.131997

1957

0.546

1971

0.4809

1985

0.5334

1999

0.5805

2013

0.5239

2027

0.09903

1958

0.542

1972

0.4699

1986

0.5364

2000

0.5621

2014

0.5276

2028

0.066063

1959

0.5484

1973

0.4699

1987

0.5364

2001

0.5621

2015

0.4612

2029

0.033096

1960

0.5477

1974

0.4366

1988

0.536

2002

0.5748

2016

0.4557

2030

0.000129

Predicted development, based on 2014-2017, in red

 

Appendix B - Liberal freedom and Deliberation in India, 2004 - 2017

                   Liberal Deliberative

          component     component

              index         index

Year             Sum           Sum

________ __________ ____________

 

2004             ,78           ,90

 

2005             ,77           ,90

 

2006             ,77           ,90

 

2007             ,77           ,90

 

2008             ,77           ,90

 

2009             ,76           ,88

 

2010             ,75           ,85

 

2011             ,75           ,85

 

2012             ,76           ,85

 

2013             ,77           ,86

 

2014             ,78           ,85

 

2015             ,73           ,75

 

2016             ,74           ,70

 

2017             ,72           ,49

 

 Appendix C - Freedom of expression in India, 2004 - 2017

          Freedom of

          expression

              index

Year             Sum

________ __________

 

2004            .84

 

2005             .86

 

2006             .86

 

2007             .86

 

2008             .86

 

2009             .86

 

2010             .86

 

2011             .86

 

2012             .82

 

2013             .85

 

2014             .81

 

2015             .71

 

2016             .69

 

2017             .59

 

 

 

Appendix D - Corruption in India, 2004 - 2017

                           Public

          Executive     sector

          corruption corruption

              index       index

Year             Sum         Sum

________ __________ __________

 

2004             ,42         ,40

 

2005             ,42         ,40

 

2006             ,42         ,40

 

2007             ,42         ,40

 

2008             ,42         ,40

 

2009             ,42         ,40

 

2010            ,43         ,40

 

2011             ,43         ,40

 

2012             ,43         ,40

 

2013             ,45         ,41

 

2014             ,45         ,41

 

2015             ,37         ,50

 

2016             ,37         ,50

 

2017             ,33         ,49

  

Appendix E -  Religious organizations, political violence, and freedom of religion, 2004 - 2017

 


 

Mean Using scale ranging from 0 to 1

Year

Freedom of Religion (0-1)

Freedom from political killings (0-1)

Religious organization repression (0-1)

Religious organization consultation (0-1)

2004

,7902

,7276

,8929

,7876

2005

,7624

,7276

,8929

,7876

2006

,7624

,7276

,8929

,7876

2007

,7624

,7276

,8929

,7846

2008

,7624

,7276

,8929

,7875

2009

,7624

,7276

,8929

,7875

2010

,7624

,6813

,8955

,6243

2011

,7624

,6813

,8955

,6243

2012

,7624

,6813

,8503

,6265

2013

,7634

,6755

,8563

,4405

2014

,7244

,6755

,7029

,5785

2015

,7244

,5127

,6956

,7633

2016

,7244

,5127

,6891

,7633

2017

,7322

,5085

,6523

,8725


 

Electoral democracy in comparative perspective, 2004 - 2017  

 

Mean

Year

Country name

Electoral democracy index

2004

Germany

.9093

India

.7264

Pakistan

.4085

South Africa

.7756

United States of America

.8637

Total

.7367

2005

Germany

.9053

India

.7374

Pakistan

.4154

South Africa

.8031

United States of America

.8623

Total

.7447

2006

Germany

.8952

India

.7374

Pakistan

.4109

South Africa

.8006

United States of America

.8682

Total

.7425

2007

Germany

.8952

India

.7374

Pakistan

.3956

South Africa

.8006

United States of America

.9002

Total

.7458

2008

Germany

.8990

India

.7374

Pakistan

.4398

South Africa

.7946

United States of America

.9035

Total

.7548

2009

Germany

.9045

India

.7034

Pakistan

.4964

South Africa

.7834

United States of America

.8938

Total

.7563

2010

Germany

.9054

India

.6836

Pakistan

.5167

South Africa

.7966

United States of America

.9040

Total

.7613

2011

Germany

.9034

India

.6797

Pakistan

.5167

South Africa

.7839

United States of America

.9236

Total

.7615

2012

Germany

.9024

India

.6733

Pakistan

.4986

South Africa

.7833

United States of America

.9285

Total

.7572

2013

Germany

.8972

India

.6637

Pakistan

.4809

South Africa

.7734

United States of America

.9226

Total

.7475

2014

Germany

.8786

India

.6618

Pakistan

.4703

South Africa

.7660

United States of America

.9200

Total

.7393

2015

Germany

.8655

India

.6014

Pakistan

.4639

South Africa

.7336

United States of America

.8991

Total

.7127

2016

Germany

.8655

India

.5981

Pakistan

.4639

South Africa

.7289

United States of America

.8874

Total

.7087

2017

Germany

.8632

India

.5706

Pakistan

.4519

South Africa

.7295

United States of America

.8222

Total

.6875

Total

Germany

.8945

India

.7014

Pakistan

.4073

South Africa

.6337

United States of America

.8807

Total

.7035

 


Full list of references

Baruah, S. K. and R. Ahuja (2015). Narendra Modi govt cracks down on NGOs, prepares hitlist. Hindustan Times. New Delhi.

 Basu, A. (2015). Violent conjunctures in democratic India. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

 

Reporters without borders. (2018) "Surge in police violence against journalists in India." Canadian Journal of Political Science-Revue Canadienne De Science Politique.

 

Coppedge, M., J. Gerring, C. H. Knutsen, S. I. Lindberg, S.-E. Skaaning, J. Teorell, D. Altman, M. Bernhard, A. Cornell, M. S. Fish, H. Gjerløw, A. Glynn, A. Hicken, J. Krusell, A. Lührmann, K. L. Marquardt, K. McMann, V. Mechkova, M. Olin, P. Paxton, D. Pemstein, B. Seim, R. Sigman, J. Staton, A. Sundtröm, E. Tzelgov, L. Uberti, Y.-t. Wang, T. Wig and D. Ziblatt (2018a). Varieties of Democracy Codebook. Varieties of Democracy. University of Gothenburg, V-Dem Insititute.

 

Coppedge, M., J. Gerring, C. H. Knutsen, S. I. Lindberg, S.-E. Skaaning, J. Teorell, D. Altman, M. Bernhard, M. S. Fish, A. Cornell, D. Sirianne, H. Gjerløw, A. Glynn, A. Hicken, J. Krusell, A. Lührman, K. L. Marquardt, K. McMann, V. Mechkova, J. Medzihorsky, M. Olin, P. Paxton, D. Pemstein, J. Pernes, J. von Römer, B. Seim, R. Sigman, J. Staton, N. Stepanova, A. Sundström, E. Tzelgov, Y.-t. Wang, T. Wig, S. Wilson and D. Ziblatt (2018b). V-Dem [Country-Year/Country-Date] Dataset v8. V. o. D. V.-D. Project. Gotheburg University.

 

Varieties of Democracy. (2018). Democracy for All? - V-Dem Annual Democracy Report 2018, Varities of Democracy Institute.

 

Doniger, W. (2014). India: Censorship by the Batra Brigade. The New York Review of Books. New York.

 

Habermas, J. (1996). Between facts and norms : contributions to a discourse theory of law and democracy. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press.

 

Kannabiran, K. (2018). "They cannot stop me from teaching Marx and Ambedkar: Prof. K. Satyanarayana." The Hindu.

 

Kazmin, A. (2015). NGOs fear government crackdown amid Greenpeace India battle. The Financial Times. New Delhi.

 

Kazmin, A. (2018) "Modi government in public spat with Reserve Bank of India." Financial Times.

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Photographs from India, 2010-2014.

© 2015 Sten Widmalm